Childhood Tumors
Cerebral hemisphere:
Astrocytoma/Anaplastic astrocytoma
Ependymoma
Oligodendroglioma
Corpus Callosum:
Astrocytoma/Anaplastic astrocytoma
Oligodendroglioma
Lipoma
Lateral Ventricle:
Ependymoma
Choroid plexus papilloma
Pineal:
Germ Cell Neoplasm
Cerebellum:
Medulloblastoma
Astrocytoma
Dermoid
Third Ventricle:
Ependymoma
Choroid plexus papilloma
Optic Chiasm and Nerve:
Astrocytoma
Fourth Ventricle :
Ependymoma
Choroid plexus papilloma
Pituitary:
Craniopharyngioma
Germ Cell Neoplasm
Pituitary adenoma
Cerebellopntine Angle:
Ependymoma
Choroid plexus papilloma
Brain Stem:
Astrocyoma
Anaplastic astrocytoma
GBM
Above Third Ventricle:
Pilocytic astrocytoma
Fibrillary astrocytoma
Oligodendroglioma
Adult Tumors
Cerebral hemisphere:
Astrocytoma/Anaplastic astrocytoma/GBM
Meningioma
Metastatic Carcinoma
Vascular Malformation
Oligodendroglioma
Ependymoma
Sarcoma
Corpus Callosum:
Astrocytoma/Anaplastic astrocytoma/GBM
Oligodendroglioma
Lipoma
Lateral Ventricle:
Ependymoma
Meningioma
Subependymoma
Choroid plexus papilloma
Pineal:
Germ Cell Neoplasm
Cerebellum:
Hemangioblastoma
Metastatic carcinoma
Astrocytoma
Medulloblastoma
Third Ventricle:
Colloid Cyst
Ependymoma
Optic Chiasm and Nerve:
Meningioma
Astrocytoma
Fourth Ventricle :
Ependymoma
Choroid plexus papilloma
Meningioma
Pituitary:
Pituitary adenoma
Craniopharyngioma
Meningioma
Germ Cell Neoplasm
Region of the
Foramen Magnum:

Meningioma
Schwannoma
Neurofibroma
Cerebellopntine Angle:
Acoustic schwannoma
Meningioma
Epidermoid cyst
Choroid plexus papilloma
Glomus jugulare tumor
Brain Stem:
Astrocyoma
Anaplastic astrocytoma
GBM
Above Third Ventricle:
Astrocytoma/Anaplastic astrocytoma/GBM
Oligodendroglioma
Ependymoma
Pilocytic astrocytoma

Neuronal Responses to Injury
Wallerian Degeneration - breakdown of axon distal to injury
Central Chromatolysis - neuronal cell body clearing proximal to injury (may be reversible)
Retrograde Degeneration - neuron undergoes atrophy when the distal axon is damaged
Trans-synaptic Degeneration - neuron undergoes atrophy when main synaptic input is lost
Causes of Neuronal injury: anoxic/ischemic, excitotoxicity, apoptosis, metabolic storage disease
Demyelination: (stain black with Marchi's or Sudan Black; unstained with Weigert-Pal or Loyez)
Primary - specific destruction of myelin (precedes axon damage)
Secondary - follows nerve cell death and axon destruction
CELL
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY
REACTION TO INJURY
Neuron Neurofilament, Synaptophysin, NSE Central chromatolysis, Wallerian degeneration, neuronopathy, retrograde degeneration, Trans-synaptic degeneration, Ischemia
Astrocyte GFAP, Vimentin Proliferation, Hypertrphy (gemistocyte), Gliosis
Oligodendrocyte Leu 7, galactocerebroside Swelling, Proliferation
Ependyma Weak GFAP Atrophy, Loss (granular ependymitis)
Microglia B cell and Macrophage markers Proliferation, microglial nodule, rod cell shape